Speakers from various cancer centers around the world and the cancer literature support the notion that an accurate and appropriate staging of any cancer is absolutely essential to get the best cancer treatment.
For instance, it took a few decades to appreciate with breast cancer that even a small lesion of 1. 5 cm (just a bit more than ½ inch) has a high probability of having metastases already.
Beyond 1 cm the tissue pressure in the primary tumor (breast cancer) is such that the cancer cells are being shed into the lymphatic system, where the lymph glands filter the cancer cells.
Before long this leads to further spread via the blood stream into the bone marrow, where micro bone metastases form and wait for the next growth spurt. For reasons, which are not entirely understood yet such micro metastases can linger on undetected for possibly several years. This likely is the reason why some breast cancers that were detected early and appeared to be cured by a simple lumpectomy or by mastectomy sometimes develop late metastases. Breast cancer staging allows the physician to treat the cancer according to how far it has spread. The breast cancer chapter elsewhere explains that chemotherapy is often given to eradicate micro metastases following a lumpectomy. Tamoxifen also is given for that reason. However, with the experience of the use of bio-identical progesterone by anti-aging medicine physicians it is now clear that this is a much safer treatment of residual micro metastases than Tamoxifen (Ref. 16).
It is important to employ the latest technology to be certain about the cancer stage before engaging in treatment. Sometimes patients get irritated that they have to undergo more tests when they already have histological proof of the type of cancer.
However, these further tests are vital for long term survival, as the physician must know exactly how far the cancer has spread as various anticancer drugs may have to be combined and the exact combination might be given in a different sequence for a different stage. Some of the rational for this is explained in the various cancer chapters in more detail. Ask your doctor or oncologist (who is the specialist for cancer) why certain tests have to be done so that you understand the reasons.
More information about staging of cancer and the TNM classification (thanks to cancerguide.org for this link).
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16. Dr. John R. Lee, David Zava and Virginia Hopkins: “What your doctor may not tell you about breast cancer – How hormone balance can help save your life”, Wellness Central, Hachette Book Group USA, 2005. Page 29 – 38 (Chapter 2): Risk factors for breast cancer. Page 360 to 374 explains about xenohormones and how they cause estrogen dominance. Pages 221 to 234 (chapter 12) explains why Tamoxifen is not recommended and bio-identical progesterone is more powerful in preventing breast and uterine cancer.