It makes sense that a blocked Fallopian tube could cause infertility in a woman, particularly when both Fallopian tubes are blocked. She will have problems trying to get pregnant normally.
The blockage of a fallopian tube can occur due to a number of reasons: scarring from pelvic inflammatory disease due to prior sexually transmitted disease, a tubal pregnancy in the past, pelvic adhesions from previous gynecological surgery or abdominal surgery including appendectomy or blockage from endometriosis, just to name a few.
A special X-ray test, called “hysterosalpingogram”, often depicts the pathology on X-ray films (contrast medium is blocked at the end of the fallopian tubes), but often is good reassurance when the test is normal (free flow of contrast medium).
Hysteroscopy and laparoscopies
Some of these women will become pregnant within a few cycles from the test. Those who have abnormalities can be treated by the gynecologist using endoscopic technology called “hysteroscopy”. With this procedure the specialist uses a fiberoptic instrument to go through the vagina and the uterine cavity into each tube to loosen up adhesions or do other minor surgical procedures. In other cases this may have to be followed by laparoscopy where the gynecologist introduces a fiberoptic instrument with small stab wounds through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity where further testing can get done by injecting a dye from below to see whether the tubes are functioning or not. Also, laser surgery for endometriosis treatment with cautery of lesions can be done this way.
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