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Conditions Predisposing To Pneumonia

Conditions predisposing to pneumonia have in common that the immune system (thanks to home.comcast.net for this image) is in some way weakened, either through age, another infection or a debilitating condition. In the unconscious or in a person with an end stage neurological disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis or Lou-Gehrig disease, for instance) the protective cough reflex is missing facilitating aspiration pneumonia.(thanks to meded.ucsd.edu for this image).

Conditions Predisposing To Pneumonia

Disease or condition: Comments:
upper respiratory infections bacterial super infections are common
cigarette smoking leads to chronic bronchitis/infection
alcoholism weakens immune system
chronic obstructive airway disease and chronic asthma lining of chronically irritated airways more susceptible to infections
chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus and kidney failure immune system is weakened
extreme ages (premature baby and nursing home resident) weak immune systems
congestive heart failure tissues edematous, infection prone
unconsciousness protective cough reflex missing
swallowing problems debilitated patients; neurological disorders in end stage often have reflux esophagitis in their sleep
institutionalization crowded prisons, nursing homes, military barracks, schools, colleges. Leads to easier transmission
compromised immune system AIDS; cancer patients; patients with burns; corticosteroids treatment of asthma; arthritis (autoimmune disease) treated with chemotherapy agents
Conditions Predisposing To Pneumonia (Upper Respiratory Infections)

Conditions Predisposing To Pneumonia (Upper Respiratory Infections, Allergies Etc.)

 

 

References:

1. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 161.

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4. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse   Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 43.

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6. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse   Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 162.

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10. SP Fisher-Hoch et al. J Virol 2000 Aug; 74(15): 6777-6783.

11. Mandell: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed., ©   2000 Churchill Livingstone, Inc.

12. Goldman: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 21st ed., Copyright © 2000   W. B. Saunders Company

13. PE Sax: Infect DisClinics of N America Vol.15, No 2 (June 2001):   433-455.

14. Ferri: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment, 2004 ed., Copyright © 2004 Mosby, Inc.

15. Rakel: Conn’s Current Therapy 2004, 56th ed., Copyright © 2004 Elsevier

Last modified: September 30, 2014

Disclaimer
This outline is only a teaching aid to patients and should stimulate you to ask the right questions when seeing your doctor. However, the responsibility of treatment stays in the hands of your doctor and you.