Abnormal vaginal bleeding originates usually from irregularities with menstrual bleeding and is common in women from the menarche (=first menstrual bleeding) until the early menopause (=last menstrual bleeding). As this spans a time frame of 30 to 35 years for most women, irregularities affect potentially roughly 1/3 of all women at one point or another. Links explain the most common bleeding abnormalities based on Ref.1 and 3 and experienced in general practice.
Here the gynecologist must make every effort to rule out a hidden cancer. Usually a diagnostic D&C is done and possibly an MRI scan. The specialist may also decide to do a diagnostic laparoscopy, if ovarian pathology or endometriosis is suspected.
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2. B. Sears: “Zone perfect meals in minutes”. Regan Books, Harper Collins, 1997.
3. Ryan: Kistner’s Gynecology & Women’s Health, 7th ed.,1999 Mosby, Inc.
4. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 245.
5. AB Diekman et al. Am J Reprod Immunol 2000 Mar; 43(3): 134-143.
6. V Damianova et al. Akush Ginekol (Sofia) 1999; 38(2): 31-33.
7. Townsend: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery,16th ed.,2001, W. B. Saunders Company
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10. Ruddy: Kelley’s Textbook of Rheumatology, 6th ed.,2001 W. B. Saunders Company
11. EC Janowsky et al. N Engl J Med Mar-2000; 342(11): 781-790.
12. Wilson: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 9th ed.,1998 W. B. Saunders Company
13. KS Pena et al. Am Fam Physician 2001; 63(9): 1763-1770.
14. LM Apantaku Am Fam Physician Aug 2000; 62(3): 596-602.
15. Noble: Textbook of Primary Care Medicine, 3rd ed., 2001 Mosby, Inc.
16. Goroll: Primary Care Medicine, 4th ed.,2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
17. St. Paul’s Hosp. Contin. Educ. Conf. Nov. 2001,Vancouver/BC
18. Gabbe: Obstetrics – Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 3rd ed., 1996 Churchill Livingstone, Inc.
19. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 251.
20. The Merck Manual, 7th edition, by M. H. Beers et al., Whitehouse Station, N.J., 1999. Chapter 250.
21. Ignaz P Semmelweiss: “Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers” (“Etiology, the Understanding and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever”). Vienna (Austria), 1861.
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23. Mandell: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed., 2000 Churchill Livingstone, Inc.
24. Horner NK et al. J Am Diet Assoc Nov-2000; 100(11): 1368-1380.
25. Dr. John R. Lee, David Zava and Virginia Hopkins: “What your doctor may not tell you about breast cancer – How hormone balance can help save your life”, Wellness Central, Hachette Book Group USA, 2005. On page 253 and 254 he describes how progesterone can be used as a cream to treat fibroids.